Manipur is a small land-locked state in Indiaï¿½s north eastern region bordering Nagaland to the north, Assam to the west, Mizoram to the south and a 358 km border with Myanmar to the east, with a population of 23.89 lakhs (2001 Census) and a land area of 22,327 sq.km. The State has 9 districts (Imphal West, Imphal East, Bishnupur, Thoubal, Churachandpur, Chandel, Ukhrul, Senapati and Tamenglong), 34 Community Development Blocks and 2182 villages. The average literacy rate is 77.87% for males and 59.70% for females. The per capita income is Rs. 12,198.00 against the all India figure of Rs. 21,120.00. 74% of the total population lives in the rural area. Hill districts constitute almost 90% of the total area but have less than 40% of the total population of the state. The density of population is 44 persons per sq. km. in the hill districts and 628 persons per sq. km. in the valley. The sex ratio is 978 females per 1000 males (2001 census).
The state is a land of social, cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. There are 29 Schedule Tribes (ST) and 7 Schedule Castes (SC) having their own distinct dialects, tradition and culture. ST and SC constitute 31.3% and 2.51% of the total population of the state respectively. The lingua franca of the state is Manipuri language .
As the first few cases of HIV infection of the country were reported in 1986 the Manipur State Government also took serious note of the problem and initiated a series of important measures to tackle the epidemic. With the formation of the high-powered National AIDS Committee in 1986 and as it launched its National AIDS Control Programme in 1987, Manipur immediately set up a State AIDS Committee under the chairmanship of Chief Minister. State AIDS Cell was established in the State Health Directorate under the supervision of one medical officer.
AIDS has emerged as a new and serious public health emergency in Manipur. The first HIV positive case in Manipur was reported in February 1990 from the blood samples of October 1989 among a cluster of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs). The State AIDS Policy was adopted by the State Government on 3rd October, 1996 and became the first State in India to have a State AIDS Policy. The Manipur State AIDS Control Society (MACS) was formed and registered in March, 1998 and since then the Society has been implementing the AIDS Control Programme in the State. The Apex Body of the Society is the Governing Body consisting of not more than 17 persons from various Government and Non-Government Organizations with the Chief Minister of Manipur, the Minister (Health) and the Commissioner/Secretary (Health) as its Chairman, Vice- Chairman and Member Secretary respectively. The management of the Society is entrusted to an Executive Committee consisting of not more than 11 persons from different Government and Non-Government Organizations with the Commissioner/Secretary (Health) and Project Director (MACS) as its President and Member Secretary respectively.